Artificial inoculation technique already been developed and is found to be most effective and reliable method for enhancement of agar production. Works on commercialization are in progress and expected to make available for general use in the field.
Mechanically wounded with nails.
Tree drilling and chemical injection.
This effort involves drilling of trees and keeping the wound open by placing a small piece of plastic pipe in those holes followed by a chemical injection to stimulate tree defense mechanism that produces resin. The first project of this effort was initiated in Vietnam under a supervision from Prof. Robert Blanchette, a wood pathologist from the University of Minnesota who together with local farmers and Buddhist monks. They developed experimental plots to stimulate the production of agarwood and after years of trials, this treatment yielded agarwood. Dr. Blanchette stated that this artificial induction could yield agarwood ten times faster than natural formation (WWW page: http://forestpathology.coafes.umn.edu). This finding has gained appreciation and has been considered as one of the most successful finding (Persoon, 2007). This treatment causes tree to respond in two defense mechanisms, physical and chemical. The first is phloem cells form callus and the second, should callus formation is prevented, the tree produces resin.
Insert with inoculant-soaked bamboo stick to stress tree, Thailand
Tree drilling and inoculation of fungal inoculum
The formation of agarwood is a result of plant defense mechanism towards fungal attacks by producing resinous compounds as secondary metabolite. In their natural habitat, the process of resin accumulation as the result of tree-pathogen battle may take many years and the longer the process takes place the more expensive and highly valuable the resin is. Many scientists have been passionately trying to understand the cascade process of this tree-fungi interaction in producing gaharu. Isolation of various fungi from infected trees have been widely reported.
ICU method — Single unit, 300ml inoculant per tree, by PENGHARUM.
ICU method — Multiple units, by Gaharu Biotech,Pahang.