EM application

EM APLICATION MANUAL

The First Edition. 1995.

CONTENTS

1.0 INTRODUCTION *
1.1 IDEAL AGRICULTURE *
1.2 USE OF BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS IN AGRICULTURE *

2.0 EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS(EM) *
2.1 EFFECTS OF EM *
2.2 PRINCIPAL MICROORGANISMS IN EM AND THEIR ACTION IN SOIL *

3.0 APPLICATIONS OF EM1 *
3.1 EM1 STOCK SOLUTION *
3.2 EM BOKASHI *
3.3 EM5 *
3.4 EM FERMENTED PLANT EXTRACT *

4.0 EM1 STOCK SOLUTION *

4.1 USE OF EM1 STOCK SOLUTION *

5.0 BOKASHI *
5.1 AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC BOKASHI *
5.2 MATERIALS OF BOKASHI *
5.3 PREPARING BOKASHI *
5.4 USING BOKASHI *

6.0 EM5 *
6.1 MAKING EM5 *
6.2 USING EM5 *

7.0 EM FERMENTED PLANT EXTRACT *
7.1 PREPARATION OF EM FERMENTED PLANT EXTRACTS *
7.2 USING EM FERMENTED PLANT EXTRACT *

8.0 EM1 IN CROP PRODUCTION *
8.1 RICE *
8.2 UPLAND FIELD CROPS *
8.3 ORCHARD CROPS *

9.0 EM1 IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION *

10.0 EM1 IN FISH CULTURE *

11.0 IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF USING EM *

APPENDIX 1: EXAMPLES OF BOKASHI *

APPENDIX 2: SOIL FOR RAISING SEEDLINGS *

APPENDIX 3: PREPARATION OF EM1 SECONDARY STOCK SOLUTION *
(MULTIPLICATION OF EM1)

APPENDIX 4: SOIL CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF MICROBIAL ACTIVITY *

KYUSEI NATURE FARMING
WITH EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS
(EM TECHNOLOGY)

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Kyusei Nature Farming was developed in Japan with the objective of producing food that is safe and free of harmful chemicals and toxic materials. For many years the practitioners of Kyusei Nature Farming adopted the organic farming system, with little results to provide adequate food for the majority of the population.

In the 1980’s, Prof. Dr. Teruo Higa introduced the concept of Effective Microorganisms(EM) to Kyusei Nature Farming. Thus, a group of beneficial microorganisms were cultured and used as a means of improving soil conditions, suppressing disease inducing microbes and improving the efficiency of organic matter utilization by crops. This technology proved to be highly successful, and thus an international conference was organized in November 1989 in Thailand to introduce this technology to the Asia Pacific region. At this conference, the Asia Pacific Natural Agriculture Network (APNAN) was formed.

The primary aim of APNAN is to establish an international network of scientists in the Asia Pacific region, in order to promote research, education practices and technologies.

These activities will be based on the principles of Kyusei Nature Farming and the technology of Effective Microorganisms (EM)

1.1 IDEAL AGRICULTURE

The main theme of Kyusei Nature Farming is to practice an IDEAL AGRICULTURE. The five principles of ideal agriculture as advocated by Kyusei Nature Farming are:

It produces safe and nutritious food to enhance human health.
It is economically and spiritually beneficial to both producers(farmers) and consumers.
It is sustainable and easily practiced by everyone.
It conserves our environment.
It produces sufficient food of high quality for an expanding world population.

1.2 USE OF BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS IN AGRICULTURE

Agricultural production begins with the process of photosynthesis by green plants, which requires solar energy, water, and carbon dioxide. These materials are freely available. Therefore, it can be defined that “Agriculture is to produce something from nothing”. Althought it sounds good, when observed as an economic activity, present agriculture has an extremely low efficiency. This is due to the very low utilization efficiency of solar energy by plants

The potential utilization rate of solar energy by plants has been estimated theoretically to be between 10 and 20%. However, the actual utilization rate is less than 1%. Even the utilization rate of C4 plants, such as sugar cane which have a high photosynthetic efficiency, barely exceeds 6 or 7% during the maximum growth period. The utilization rate is normally less than 3% even for producing optimum crop yields.

Past studies have shown that photosynthetic efficiency of the chloroplasts of host crop can not be enhanced much further. This means that their biomass production capacity has reached a maximum. Therefore, the best opportunity for increasing biomass production is to utilize the visible light, which chloroplasts can not presently use, and the infrared radiation. These together account for about 80% of the total solar energy. We should also explore ways of recycling organic energy contained in plant and animal residues through direct utilization of organic molecules by plants.

In the presence of organic matter, photosynthetic bacteria and algae can utilize wavelengths ranging from 700 to 1200 nm. Green plants do not use these wavelengths. Fermenting microorganisms can also breakdown organic matter, thereby releasing complex compounds such as amino acids for plant use. This increases the efficiency of organic matter for crop production Thus a key factor for increasing crop production is the availability of organic matter, which has been developed by utilizing solar energy and the presence of efficient microbes to decompose these materials. This increases the utilization efficiency of solar energy.

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2.0 EFFECTIVE MICROORGANISMS (EM)

Effective Microorganisms or EM is a mixed culture of beneficial microorganisms (primarily photosynthetic and lactic acid bacteria, yeast, actinomycetes, fermenting fungi) that can be applied as an inoculant to increase the microbial diversity of soils. This in turn, can improve soil quality and health, which enhances the growth, yield, and quality of crops.

The concept of inoculating soils and plants with beneficial microorganisms to create a more favorable microbiological environment for plant growth has been discussed for decades by agricultural scientists. However, the technology behind the concept of Effective Microorganisms and it’s practical application was developed by Professor Teruo Higa at the University of the Ryukyus in Okinawa, Japan.

Professor Higa has devoted much of his scientific career to isolating and selecting different microorganisms for developing beneficial effects on soils and plants. He has found microorganisms that can coexist in mixed cultures and are physiologically compatible with one another. When these cultures are introduced into the natural environment, their individual beneficial effects are greatly magnified in a synergistic fashion.

# EM cultures do not contain any genetically modified microorganisms. EM is made up of mixed cultures of microbial species that are found in natural environments worldwide.

2.1 EFFECTS OF EM

The following are some of the beneficial influences of EM.

(a) Promotes germination, flowering, fruiting and ripening in plants.
(b) Improves physical, chemical and biological environments of the soil and suppresses soil borne pathogens and pests.
(c) Enhances the photosynthetic capacity of crops.
(d) Ensures better germination and plant establishment
(e) Increases the efficacy of organic matter as fertilizers.

Due to the above stated beneficial effects of EM, yields and quality of crops are enhanced.

* EM is not a pesticide and thus does not contain chemicals that could be construed as such. EM is a microbial inoculant that functions as a biological control measure in suppressing and/or controlling pests through the introduction of beneficial microorganisms to the plant environment. Therefore, pests and pathogens are suppressed or controlled through natural processes by increasing the competitive and antagonistic activities of the microorganisms in EM inoculants.

2.2 PRINCIPAL MICROORGANISMS IN EM AND THEIR ACTION IN SOlL.

(1) Photosynthetic bacteria (Phototrophic bacteria)

Photosynthetic bacteria are independent self supporting microorganisms. These bacteria synthesize useful substances from secretions of roots, organic matter and/or harmful gases (e.g. hydrogen sulfide) by using sunlight and the heat of soil as sources of energy. The useful substances comprise of amino acids, nucleic acids, bioactive substances and sugars, all of which promote plant growth and development.

These metabolites are absorbed into plants directly and also act as substrates for increasing bacteria. Thus increasing Photosynthetic bacteria in the soil enhances other effective microorganisms. For example, VA (vesicular-arbuscular) mycorrhiza in the rhizosphere are increased due to the availability of nitrogenous compounds (amino acids) for use as substrates secreted by Photosynthetic bacteria. VA mycorrhiza increases the solubility of phosphates in soils thereby supplying unavailable phosphorus to plants. VA mycorrhiza can coexist with Azotobactor as nitrogenfixing bacteria and enhance nitrogen fixing ability of legumes.

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(2) Lactic acid bacteria

Lactic acid bacteria produces lactic acid from sugars, and other carbohydrates produced by Photosynthetic bacteria and Yeast. Thus, food and drinks such as yogurt and pickles have been made by using Lactic acid bacteria for a long period of time. However, lactic acid is a strong sterilizer. It suppresses harmful microorganisms and increases rapid decomposition of organic matter. Moreover Lactic acid bacteria enhances the breakdown of organic matter such as lignin and cellulose, and ferments these materials without causing harmful influences caused by undecomposed organic matter.

Lactic acid bacteria has the ability to suppress Fusarium propagation which is a harmful microorganism causing disease problems in continuous cropping. Generally, increased Fusarium populations weakens plants. This condition promotes diseases and also results in the sudden increase of harmful nematodes. The occurrence of nematodes disappear gradually, as Lactic acid bacteria suppresses the propagation and function of Fusarium.

(3) Yeasts

Yeasts synthesize antimicrobial and useful substances for plant growth from amino acids and sugars secreted by Photosynthetic bacteria, organic matter and plant roots.

Bioactive substances such as hormones and enzymes produced by yeasts promote active cell and root division. Their secretions are useful substrates for effective microorganisms such as Lactic acid bacteria and Actinomycetes.

(4) Actinomycetes

Actinomycetes, the structure of which is intermediate to that of bacteria and fungi, produces antimicrobial substances from amino acids secreted by Photosynthetic bacteria and organic matter. These antimicrobial substances suppress harmful fungi and bacteria.

Actinomycetes can coexist with Photosynthetic bacteria. Thus, both species enhance the quality of the soil environment, by increasing the antimicrobial activity of the soil.

(5) Fermenting Fungi

Fermenting fungi such as Aspergillus and Penicillium decompose organic matter rapidly to produce alcohol, esters and antimicrobial substances.

These suppress odors and prevent infestation of harmful insects and maggots.

Each species of Effective Microorganisms (photosynthetic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts, actinomycetes and fermenting fungi) has its own important function. However, photosynthetic bacteria is the pivot of EM activity.

Photosynthetic bacteria support the activities of other microorganisms. On the other hand, photosynthetic bacteria also utilizes substances produced by other microorganisms. This phenomenon is termed “coexistence and co-prosperity”.

When Effective Microorganisms increase as a community in soils, populations of native effective microorganisms are also enhanced. Thus, the micro flora becomes rich and microbial ecosystems in the soil become well-balanced, where specific microorganisms (especially harmful microorganisms) do not increase. Thus, soil borne diseases are suppressed.

Plant roots secrete substances such as carbohydrates, amino and organic acids and active enzymes. Effective microorganisms use these secretions for growth. During this process, they also secrete and provide amino and nucleic acids, a variety of vitamins and hormones to plants. Furthermore, in such soils, effective microorganisms in the rooting zone(rhizosphere) co-exist (symbiosis) with plants. Hence, plants grow exceptionally well in such soils which are dominated by effective microorganisms.

The following chart shows the fuctions of Effective Microorgansims in the soil.

Figure 1: “Microorganisms for Agriculture and Environmental Preservation”, Teruo Higa (1991)Nou-bun Kyo. (in Japanese)

3.0 APPLICATION OF EM1

Basically, EM can be applied in four ways, namely as EM1 stock solution, EM5 solution, EM Bokashi and as EM fermented plant extract.

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3.1 EM1 Stock Solution

EM1 stock solution can be applied by:
1) Watering into the soil (by watering cans, sprinklers or irrigation systems)
2) Spray onto plants (foliar spray) by sprayer or watering can

3.2 EM BOKASHI (EM fermented organic matters)

“Bokashi” is a Japanese word which means “Fermented organic matter”. It is made by fermenting organic matter (rice bran, oil cake, fish meal etc.) with EM. Bokashi is normally found as a powder or as granules. Bokashi has been used by Japanese farmers as traditional soil amendments to increase the microbial diversity of soils and supply nutrients to crops. Traditionally Bokashi has been made by fermenting organic matter such as rice bran by soil from forests or mountains, which contain various microorganisms.

However, EM Bokashi is fermented organic matter using EM instead of forest or mountain soil. Thus, EM Bokashi is an important additive to increase effective microorganisms in the soil. (Details on the preparation of EM Bokashi is discussed later.)

3.3 EM5 (EM fermented solutions)

EM5 is a fermented mixture of vinegar, spirits(alcohol), molasses and EM 1.

It is used to spray the plant to suppress pathogens and keep away insect pests. (Details of EM5 preparation is discussed later.)

3.4 EM Fermented Plant Extract (EM-F.P.E.)

EM fermented plant extract is a mixture of fresh weeds fermented with molasses and EM 1. The main effect of this extract is to supply quality nutrients to crops, and also to suppress pathogens and keep away insects.

4.0 EM1 STOCK SOLUTION

Original EM 1 is yellow-brown liquid with a pleasant odor and sweet-sour taste. The pH of EM 1 should be below 3.5.

If it has a bad smell or foul odor or pH is more than 4.0, the EM1 has deteriorated. It should not be used.

4.1 USE OF EM1 STOCK SOLUTION.

Original EM1 is dormant. Thus EM1 needs to be activated by the provision of ‘water’ and ‘food’. This is done by adding water and molasses. (Use EM diluted solution (0.1%) to apply to crops.)

1 litre (1000 cc) of water
1 cc of EM1
1 cc of Molasses or 1g of any sugars

This solution is left for 2-24 hours and sprayed to plants, soil or organic matter.

5.0 BOKASHI

Bokashi is equivalent to compost, but it is prepared by fermenting organic matter with EM. It can be used 3 – 14 days after treatment (fermentation). Bokashi can be used for crop production even though the organic matter has not decomposed as in compost.

When bokashi is applied to soil, organic matter can be utilized as a feed for effective microorganisms to breed in the soil, as well as supplying nourishment to crops.

5.1 Aerobic Bokashi and Anaerobic Bokashi

Bokashi is classified as “Aerobic bokashi” and “Anaerobic bokashi” based on the manufacturing process. The advantages and disadvantages of aerobic and anaerobic bokashi are as follows:

Aerobic type
Advantage: Can be produced on a large scale. Fermentation period is shorter than in the anaerobic type.
Disadvantage: Energy of organic matter is lost, if temperatures during fermentation is uncontrolled.

Anaerobic type
Advantage: Maintains energy(nutrition) of organic matter. This condition is similar to silage.
Disadvantage: Mismanagement causes spoilage.

# In Japan, the anaerobic type is popular, but in Thailand the aerobic type is widely used.

5.2 Materials of Bokashi.

EM can utilize any type of organic matter. For example, the following can be used as organic matter in preparing Bokashi

Rice bran, corn bran, wheatbran, maize flour, rice husk, bean husk, rice straw, oil cake cotton seed cake, pressmud, bagasse,chopped weeds, sawdust. coconut fiber and husks. crop residues such as empty fruit bunches in oil palm, fish meal. bone meal. dung of any animals, kitchen garbage, sea weed. crab shells and similar material.

However, rice bran is recommended as an important ingredient of Bokashi, as it contains excellent nutrients for microorganisms. It is desirable to combine organic matter which have low and high C/N ratios. Generally the use of at least three types of organic matter is recommended in order to increase microbial diversity.

Adding wood or rice husk charcoal, zeolite, kelp, grass and wood ash to Bokashi is desirable. These porous materials improve soil physical conditions and nutrient holding capacity. They also act as harbouring points for effective microorganisms.

5.3 Preparing Bokashi

There are many type of Bokashi, depending on the organic matter used. The preparation of a typical Bokashi is as follows:

Materials:
(In Japan) (In Thailand)
1. Rice bran 100 litres (volume) Rice bran
2. Oil cake 25 litres Rice husk
3. Fish meal 25 litres Chicken dung
4. EM1 150 cc
5. Molasses #1 150 cc
6. Water #2 15 litres

#1 If you do not have molasses, any kind of sugar can be used. Some materials that can be used are raw cane sugar, juice of any fruits and waste water of alcohol industries.

#2 The quantity of water is a guideline. The quantum of water that needs to be added will depend on the moisture content of the materials used. The ideal quantum of water is that required to moisten the material, without drainage.

Preparation

Anaerobic-type
Mix rice bran, oil cake and fish meal well.
Dissolve molasses in the water(1 :100). It is easily dissolved in warm water.
Add EM into the above prepared molasses solution
Pour the EM mixture onto the organic matter and mix well. Please pour the EM dilution gradually and mix well while checking the moisture content. There should be no drainage of excess water. The moisture content should be about 30-40%. You can check it by squeezing a handful. Once squeezed, it should remain as a single unit without crumbling. However, on touching it should crumble easily.
Put the mixture thus made into a bag that does not permit air movement (e.g. paper or polyethylene bag). This is placed within another polyethylene bag (black vinyl) to prevent movement of air. Close the bag tightly to maintain an anaerobic condition. This is placed away from direct sunlight.
The fermenting period is:
In the temperate zone:
In summer more than 3-4 days.
In winter more than 7-8 days.
In winter, put the container in a warm location to hasten fermentation.
In the tropics: more than 3-4 days.

The Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell. If it produces a sour and rotten smell, it is a failure.
Anaerobic Bokashi should be used soon after preparation.
If storage is required, spread it on a concrete floor, dry well in the shade and then put into vinyl bag.
Please prevent rodent or other pest attacks.

Aerobic-type
Mix rice bran, oil cake and fish meal well.
Dissolve molasses in the water(1 :100). It is easily dissolved in warm water.
Add EM into the above prepared molasses solution
Pour the EM mixture onto the organic matter and mix well. Please pour the EM dilution gradually and mix well while checking the moisture content. There should be no drainage of excess water. The moisture content should be about 30-40%. You can check it by squeezing a handful. Once squeezed, it should remain as a single unit without crumbling. However, on touching it should crumble easily.
Put the mixture made above on a concrete floor, and cover with gunny bag, straw mat or similar material. Avoid exposure of this material to rain.
Under aerobic conditions, bokashi ferments rapidly. Thus the temperature increases. Ideally, the temperature should be kept around 35-45 °C. Thus, please check temperature regularly using a normal thermometer. If the temperature rises beyond 50 °C, mix the Bokashi well to aerate it.
The fermenting period is:
In the temperate zone:
In summer more than 3-4 days.
In winter more than 7-8 days.
In the tropics: more than 2-4 days.
It is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell and white mold is observed. If it has a sour and rotten smell, it is failure.

This Bokashi is best used soon after preparation.
If storage is required, spread it on a concrete floor, dry well in the shade and then put into vinyl bag. Please prevent rodent or other pest attacks.

The efficacy of Bokashi made at temperatures above 50 °C is 50% lower than that made at a lower temperature. This is due to the loss of heat energy at high temperatures.

*Please practice preparing bokashi several times. The key of preparing good bokashi is to know suitable moisture content and temperature of bokashi through practice.

It is recommended that you join the EM technology workshop to learn the process.

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5.4 Using Bokashi

In general, apply Bokashi 200g per 1 square meter on the top soil, when enough organic matters has been applied.

You can apply more (maximum 1 kg per 1 square meter), when soil is poor or has little organic matter.

6.0 EM5 (Also known in Japan as Sutochu)

EM5 is a non-chemical insect repellent and is non toxic . EM5 is used to prevent disease and pest problems in crop plants. It is usually sprayed onto plants at a dilution of 1/500 -1/1000 in water. It is mainly used to repel insects by creating a sort of barrier. EM5 could also control insect populations. EM5 carried by insects to places of food storage could “contaminate” the stored food. The process of fermentation that takes place in the food due to EM5 makes it non-edible to insects, thereby diminishing populations.

In making EM5, ingredients may vary. A standard set of ingredients is listed below. However, to make effective EM5 for more persistent pests, more organic materials should be added (organic materials that has a high quantum of antioxidants such as garlic, hot peppers, aloe, neem leaf, pruned green fruits, and grass) which are considered to be of medicinal value. When using such materials, they should be chopped or mashed in a mixer. Some or all of the materials may be used in making EM5.

6.1 Making EM5

The following is a standard set of ingredients for making EM5

lngredients(Standard).
1. Water #1 600 cc
2. Molasses 100 cc
3. Vinegar #2 100 cc
4. Distilled spirit (30-50 %) #3 100 cc
5. EM1 100 cc

#1 Well water preferred since tap water is chlorinated.
#2: Natural vinegar is better than artificial acids
#3: Whiskey or Ethyl alcohol could be used.

Items needed in making of EM5
A large pot may be used to initially blend all of the ingredients. Plastic containers are required to store the EM5 along with a funnel to pour the EM into the containers.

Preparation

Blend the molasses with water, make certain that it has been completely dissolved. You may use warm water for quick dilution of molasses.
Add vinegar and distilled spirit, followed by EM1.
Pour the mixed solution into a plastic container which can be shut tightly (A glass container should not be used). Remove excess air in container to maintain anaerobic conditions.
Store the bottle in a warm place (20-35 °C), away from direct sunlight.
When container is expanded by the fermented gas, loosen the cap of the container to release gas. Shut it tightly again.

The EM5 is ready for use when the production of gas has subsided. The EM5 should have a sweet smell (Ester/alcohol).

Storage:

EM5 should be stored in a dark cool place, which has a uniform temperature. Do not store in the refrigerator or in direct sunlight. EM5 should be used within three months after preparation.

6.2 Using EM5

Spray EM5 diluted in water 1/500-1/1000 to wet the crop.
Start spraying after germination, before pests and diseases appear.
Spray in the morning or after heavy rains.
Apply EM5 regularly.

Since EM5 is not a pesticide, germicide or a harmful chemical, the application method is different from other agrochemicals. Chemicals are used to solve a problem forcefully and quickly and are applied at specific intervals. EM5, on the other hand, should be applied from the time of planting before the development of any disease or pests. If this is not done and diseases or pests appear, EM5 should be sprayed daily until the problem disappears.

Application can be done once – twice a week with a direct spray onto the plants. Direct spraying on harmful insects should reduce populations leading to eventual disappearance.
A thorough spraying to the plant ensures good results. Continuous or regular sprayings ensure that harmful insects which may have escaped or are recent additions will be affected by the EM5.
EM5 works over time. Thus regular applications brings out the best results.

Although chemical applications may give rapid results, it may be harmful to plants and soil. The long term effects may be disastrous not only to the environment but also to the farmer’s economic condition and health. EM5 has no adverse effect even with excessive applications. In contrast, EM5 may enhance the plant’s strength through the absorption of EM and therefore increase the level of antioxidation (that is, the ability to suppress disease, pest infestation, and overcome any debilitating factors.). Although EM5 may take time to create the best condition depending on soil and type of crops grown, it will benefit the environment, the soil, the plant cultivated, and the economic status of the farmer.

The upliftment of the economic status occurs as EM5 can be made easily and cheaply. Over the long term, less EM5 (costs for the material to make EM5) is needed since the soil conditions change. This ensures a healthy and strong crop to protect itself from disease and pests. The post-harvest crop residues incorporated back to soil as a pre-treatment before the next season is recommended and, additionally, the use of EM5 would help in the suppression of diseases and pests that would be recycled back into the next crop.
EM5 contains EM l – therefore it contributes to the beneficial effects that EM 1 increasing yield and quality of the crop. Thus, less expense is incurred on fertilizers and no cost would be expended on agricultural chemicals.

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7.0 EM FERMENTED PLANT EXTRACT (EM-F.P.E.)

EM fermented plant extract is prepared by using fresh weeds and EM1.

EM-F.P.E. includes organic acids, bioactive substances, minerals and other useful substances from weeds. The production cost of EM-F.P.E.. is very low, because of the use of weeds.

7.1 Preparation of EM Fermented Plant Extract

The following is a standard set of ingredients for making EM-F.P.E.

Ingredients (for 20 litres bucket or drum)
1.Chopped fresh weeds#1 14 litres
2. Water #2 14 litres
3. Molasses #3 420 cc
4. EM1 #4 420 cc

#1 Use weeds, which have strong life such as mugwort, artemisia, clover and grass which are considered to be of medicinal value. Pruned green fruits and young shoots could be incorporated. The use of various types of weeds is recommended in order to increase bio-active substances and microbial diversity. The weeds should be cut in the morning.

#2 Well water is preferred since tap water is chlorinated. Adding a little amount of seawater (0.1%) is useful to supply minerals to crops.

#3 3% of water.

#4 3% of water.

Items needed in making of EM-F.P.E.
Large plastic bucket or drum, weight to press chopped weed, black vinyl bag, and wooden lid.

Preparation

Cut weeds and chop well (2-5cm).
Put chopped weeds into bucket.
Mix EM1 and molasses into water and pour the solution into bucket.
Cover the top of bucket with black vinyl bag.
Put lid on the vinyl, and then put weight on the lid. At the time, take care not to leave air in the bucket.
Store the bucket in a warm place (20 – 35 °C), away from direct sunlight.
Fermentation begins and gas is generated within 25 days. (depending on temperature).
Stir the weeds in the bucket regularly to release the gas.
The EM-F.P.E . is ready for use when pH of the solution is below 3.5. Put EM-F.P.E. into plastic bottle after removing the weeds by filtration (use gauze or cloth).

Storage:

EM-F.P.E. should be stored in a dark cool place, which has a uniform temperature. Do not store in the refrigerator or in direct sunlight. EM-F.P.E. should be used within one month after preparation.

7.2 Using EM-F.P.E.

Watering into the soil (1:1000) by watering cans, sprinkler or irrigation system.
Spray EM-F.P.E. diluted solution (1:500-1:1000) to wet the crop.
Start spraying after germination, before pests and diseases appear.
Spray in the morning or after heavy rains.
Apply EM-F.P.E. regularly.
The combination of EM-F.P.E. and EM5 is more effective.

8.0 EM1 IN CROP PRODUCTION

8.1 RICE

[Autumn treatment in temperate zones.]
(After harvest in the tropics)

After harvest, add all crop residues (rice straw and rice husk) to the field, and apply 30-150kg/ 10a of Bokashi and 500 – 5000L/10a of EM diluted solution (1 :1000) (1-10L/l0a of EM stock solution).

[Raising of seedling]

To hasten germination and prevent diseases, soak rice seeds into EM diluted solution (1:1000) until seeds are enlarged. It is preferable to change the solution daily. During raising of seedling, apply EM with water( 1:1000) total 4-5 times. To prevent pest and disease, spray EM5(1:500) to seedlings several times.

[Spring treatment - for temperate zones.]

At plowing, apply 30-150kg/ba of Bokashi and 50 – 5000L/10a of EM diluted solution(1 :1000) (1 – 10 L/ 10a of EM stock solution).

[Before and after planting rice seedling]

At puddling, apply 1-10L/ 10a of EM. High concentration (1:50-1:100) can be acceptable, because the rice field is flooded.
10-15 days after transplanting, apply 500-1000L/10a of EM diluted solution(1:1000)(1-2L/10a of EM stock solution), before intercultivation and weeding.

[Growing period]

While observing growth, apply Bokashi(30-50 kg/ 10a) as supplementary fertilizer. Spray 500-5000L/ 10a of EM diluted solution( 1:1000) (1-10L/10a of EM stock solution) every 1 or 2 month. Also spray EM5(1 :500) regularly.
A total of 3 – 6 applications of EM and EM5 is required up to harvest.

Weeding in Rice fields (without herbicides)

1. The principle of suppressing weeds by EM

Microorganisms (particularly lactic acid bacteria) in EM produces organic acids such as lactic acid and other bioactive substances when applied with organic mater to the soil.
These organic acids and bioactive substances break the dormancy of seeds. They also act on perennial weeds like a rotary cultivator, and obstructs callus formation, which results in fermented decomposition of the tubers and roots. By this action weeds are sprouted by force after tilling in autumn or rough puddling. These weeds just sprouted can be suppressed at the final puddling, in order to cut down the number of weeding after planting.

Lactic acid bacteria begins activity at a ground temperature above 5 °C. The higher the ground temperature, the more vigorous the action. Weeds start sprouting at 10 – 15 °C. Their action becomes more vigorous with raised temperatures. A temperature greater than 18 °C is required to hasten germination. Therefore conditions are controlled to ensure that lactic acid bacteria works until the temperature rises.

2. EM treatment in autumn

Spray 1-10L/ 10a of EM stock solution after harvest. This treatment should be carried out as soon as possible after harvesting rice plants in order to have a higher ground temperature (over 18°C) for a longer time. Weeds which sprout in the year can not survive the coming winter, and they die. For a rice field that could be flooded in winter, a state of flooding gives a greater effect.

3. EM treatment in spring

Spray 1-1 0L/ 10a of EM stock solution with molasses at rough puddling(depth of 15-20cm). Let water into the field as soon as possible when the ground temperature is around 10 °C, and puddle roughly. Keep water from leaking to increase both the ground and water temperature. Then flood shallowly, and keep the ground temperature >15 °C for more than 20 days. A longer flooded period and higher ground temperature hastens germination of weeds. After confirming the emergence of main weeds, do the second puddling(final puddling). This time, puddle the outer side (around 5 cm deeps) to dig up both weeds just sprouted and seeds. Let water into newly puddled field and wash them out. To avoid pushing them out to the lower rice fields, pick them up at the water outlet by using cheese cloth or some nets.

The sprouting condition depends on species of weeds. It is important to know the characteristic of the weeds germinating in your rice field.

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8.2 UPLAND FIELD CROPS

[Preparation of soil]

1-2 months before seeding or transplanting, apply 30-200kg/ 10a of Bokashi and EM diluted solution (1 :1000) (1-10L/10a of EM stock solution) and plow the field (In the tropics, bokashi can be applied 2-3 weeks before seeding). After plowing, mulch field with rice straw, hay or a vinyl sheet. The mulching is effective to keep soil moisture (i.e. help EM to increase), arid to control weeds.

[Raising of seedling]

Prepare a good soil for raising seedling with Soil Bokashi. (*See Page 27)
Soak seeds (such as seed potatoes) in an EM diluted solution (1 :1000) for approximately 30 minutes to coat seed with EM. This inoculates seed with EM.
After seeding, water with EM (1:1000-2000). Then spray EM5 (1:1000) to prevent pests and diseases 1-2 times a week. For seedlings purchased (pot seedlings), transplant after sprinkling a EM diluted solution (1:1000) 2-3 times instead of flooding.

[Before and after transplanting (seeding)]

At 3-7 days before planting (seeding), apply an EM diluted solution (1:1000) (1-10L/10a of EM stock solution). After transplanting, until roots develop, apply an EM diluted solution (1:1000 – 1:5000) until the field is flooded. The volume of EM stock solution you can use this time is not fixed. Dilute it appropriately according to the volume of water required for flooding.

*Bokashi should be applied at least 7-15 days before seeding or transplanting. Too much Bokashi might cause problems.

[Growing period]

Depending on the crop, apply an EM diluted solution (1:1000) (EM stock solution 1-10L/10a/one time) every 1 week for 1 month.
Increased applications will not cause any problem, but will be more effective. If it is expensive, effectual measures should be recommended.
At the beginning of the growth period, increase the number of times of application by shortening spray intervals. If the growth is favorable, apply at longer intervals.

For prevention of pests, EM5 should be sprayed on the leaves regularly at 7 – 14 days intervals. Addition of molasses or juice of Aloe(0.1%) as sticker into EM5 increases effectiveness. Please do not spray EM5 at a dilution less than 1: 500.
Apply Bokashi as additional manure, while observing crop growth. Do not apply too much Bokashi at a time. Pay attention not to put Bokashi over the crops directly, apply Bokashi around the crops.

Never use EM4 and 5 solutions diluted less than 1:500. Concentrated solution could cause a physiological problem or yellow spots on the leaves, especially in dry seasons, because of the pH of EM.

[Together agricultural chemicals] (We do not recommend to use these chemicals)

Agricultural chemicals, especially fungicides (soil disinfectant) reduce the effect of EM by half. After applying these chemicals, try to spray EM5 days later.

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[Harvest]

Harvest only necessary parts, and return all crop residue to the soil. Damaged and diseased plants could also be added into the soil. EM is applied as a diluted solution(1 :1000) with Bokashi. Mulch with rice straw or other material.
Seeding or transplanting could be carried out 14 days – 1 month after this treatment.

In case of non-tillage culture, start seeding or transplanting between crops before harvest.

8.3 ORCHARD CROPS

[Raising of seedling]

It is very important to select suitable species for the environmental condition and management regimes of your orchard. It is also important to raise high quality and healthy seedlings using EM, as it costs to replant fruit trees.

[Before and after planting]

Make the planting hole and put Bokashi and organic matter.
After planting, mulch with rice straw or fallen leaf and water with EM (1:1000).

[Growth period]

Apply EM diluted solution (1:1000) (1-10L/10a of EM stock solution) and Bokashi (200g – 500g/a square meter) regularly.
Spray EM5 (1:500-1:1000) regularly to prevent pests and diseases.

[After harvest]

Apply EM diluted solution (1:1000) (1-1 0L/ 10a of EM stock solution) and Bokashi (200g – 1kg/a square meter).

[Sod culture system]

Cover ground with leguminous or graminaceous cover crops. Mow several times a year and use the cuttings as a mulch.
This system can prevent soil erosion, increase organic matter in soil and improve soil aggregate structure. Alternate row sod systems or mulch-sod Systems are recommended.

[Mulch with EM]

Grass Mulch is an important technique in nature farming. The good points of Mulch are as follows:
To prevent soil erosion, to keep soil moisture, soil temperature and maintain a good environment for EM, to suppress weed, improve soil physical conditions by providing organic matter. To provide nutrients (particularly water soluble potassium) to crops.
Always try to mulch and apply Bokashi or EM diluted with molasses on the mulch.

This manual presents basic information. Application depends on soil and climate conditions, and culture such as green house or open air cultivation. The values on this manual should be used only as a basic reference.

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9.0 EM1 IN ANIMAL PRODUCTION

9.1 Effects of EM1 on livestock

Suppresses the foul smell on livestock barns and septic tanks
Decreases numbers of flies and ticks.
Improves animal health
Decreases the stress of animals.
Improves meat quality.
Improves fecundity.
Improves animal dung quality. (produces good manure)

9.2 APPLICATION OF EM1

Add EM Bokashi into feed of animals.
Mix EM1 into drinking water.
Spray EM1 multiplied solution on to the livestock barn.
Sprinkle EM Bokashi on the bedding for animals.
Put EM1 into septic tanks.

1) Add EM Bokashi into feed of animals.

Prepare edible Bokashi and give to animal as additive feed. This Bokashi improves microflora in intestines. As the result, health of animals is improved and the bad smell of dung is suppressed.

Preparation

Materials
1. Rice bran 100 litres
2. Wheat bran #1 100 litres
3. Molasses 200 cc
4. EM1 200 cc
5. Water #2 20 – 30 litres

#1 Corn flour can also be used as a material.

#2 The quantity of water is a guideline. The quantum of water that needs to be added will depend on the moisture content of the materials used. The ideal quantum of water is that required to moisten the material, without drainage.

Mix rice bran and wheat bran well.

Dissolve molasses in the water (1:100). It is easy to dissolve molasses in warm water.

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Add EM1 into the above prepared molasses solution

Pour the diluted EM mixture onto the organic matter and mix well. Please pour the EM dilution gradually and mix well while checking the moisture content. There should be no drainage of excess water.
The moisture content should be about 30-40%. You can check it by squeezing a handful. Once squeezed, it should remain as a single unit without crumbling. However, on touching it should crumble easily.

Put the mixture thus made into a bag that does not permit air movement (e.g. paper or polyethylene bag). This is placed within another polyethylene bag (black vinyl) to prevent movement of air. Close the bag tightly to maintain an anaerobic condition. This is placed away from direct sunlight.

The fermenting period is:
In the temperate zone: In summer more than 3-4 days.
In winter more than 7-8 days.

In winter, put the container in a warm location to hasten fermentation.
In the tropics: more than 3-4 days.

If anaerobic conditions are not maintained, the temperature increases. Ideally, the temperature should be around 35-45 °C. Thus, please check temperature regularly using a normal thermometer. If the temperature rises beyond 50 °C, mix the Bokashi well to aerate it, and put into polyethylene bag (black vinyl) and close it to maintain anaerobic conditions.

The Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell. If it produces a sour and rotten smell, it is a failure.
The Bokashi should be used soon after preparation. If storage is required, spread it on a concrete floor, dry well in the shade and then put into vinyl bag. Please prevent rodent or other pest attacks.

Application

Mix the bokashi (1-5% of feed) into feed, or sprinkle the bokashi on feed everyday.

2) Mix EM1 into drinking water.

EM improves microflora in intestines of animals. As the result, health of animals is improved and also the bad smell of dung is suppressed.

Application

Put EM 1 in the drinking water for animals (1:1000 – 1:5000).

3) Spray EM multiplied solution on livestock barns.

Bad smells in barns and animal diseases are caused by increasing harmful microorganisms. These produce harmful substances and toxins such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, tori-metiru-amin. EM suppresses the increase of harmful microorganisms. Thus, the environment of the barns and animal hygiene are improved

Preparation

Materials
1. Water #1 100 litres
2. Molasses 1 litre
3. EM1 1 litre
#1: Well water is preferred since tap water is chlorinated.

Blend the molasses with water, make certain that it has been completely dissolved. You may use warm water for quick dilution of molasses.
Pour the mixed solution into a plastic bucket or drum which can be shut tightly.
Store the bucket in a warm place (20-35 °C), away from direct sunlight. It is ready for use 1-2 days later. However, it should be used within 3 days, after mixing.

Application.

Spray on livestock barn by sprayer. (spray onto floor, walls, ceiling and drain.) or use as water for washing. Splashing EM solution on animals does not cause problems. However, in the winter do not spray animals with EM solutions.

Spray 1-2 litres per square meter every 3-7 days. When bad smell is suppressed, the number of spray can be decreased.

# In case of treading style beds such as in cattle pens, applying this EM solution in rainy season or winter may cause excess humidity. In such case, use EM Bokashi (show following) instead of this EM multiplied solution.

4) Sprinkle Bokashi on the bedding for animals

Preparation

Materials
1. Rice bran 100 litres
2. Sawdust 100 litres
3. Molasses 200 cc
4. EM1 200 cc
5. Water 20 – 30 litres
Preparation is the same as for “EM Bokashi for animals”

Application

Sprinkle about 50g (a handful of bokashi) per 1 square meters on the bed every 3-7 days. Once the bad smell is lessened, sprinkle it at longer intervals (every 2 weeks – 1 month). Consumption of the sprinkled bokashi on the bed does not cause problems.

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5) Put EM1 into septic tanks.

By adopting application methods 1 to 4, EM is fixed in excreta of animals (manure). Fixed EM utilizes excreta actively, and suppress the work of harmful microorganisms. As the result, the bad smells of septic tanks are reduced. The sludge and scam in septic tanks are decreased. Putting EM into septic tanks increases these effects much more.

Application

Put EM1 stock or EM1 multiplied solution into septic tank (1% of total water amount in tank) every 1-2 weeks. For example, put 10 litres of EM 1 multiplied solution into 1 ton tank.

10.0 EM1 IN FISH CULTURE

EM1 is useful for fish and prawn culture, because it improves water quality.

Application

Put EM1 into the pond. (0.01% of total water in the pond)(1:10000) every month. Please check the odor of water regularly. If the bad smell is not suppressed, put EM1 at shorter intervals.

Mixing “EM bokashi for animals” into feed for fish (1-5% of feed) is very effective in raising the productivity of fish farms.

11.0 IMPORTANT ASPECTS OF USING EM1

(1) EM is a living thing

EM is a living entity. Therefore, EM is completely different from chemical fertilizers or agrochemicals. EM does not work when applied in the same method as chemical fertilizers or agrochemicals. It is important to note that EM increases population of beneficial microbes in the soil.

(2) Use good quality water

It is important to use good quality water when watering crops, diluting EM 1, preparing Bokashi and EM5.

Using polluted water (high BOD, Low DO) causes infection of pests and diseases, reduction of yield and crop quality.

If you can not get good quality water, please filter it by charcoal or EM ceramics

(3) Storage of diluted solution

It is desirable to utilize diluted EM1 solutions within 3 days.

(4) Storage information

Store of EM1 – up to 6 months in a closed container, in a cool and dark place, (Please do not store in refrigerator).

Check smell if in doubt. EM 1 always has a sweet and sour smell. If smell is foul, do not use it. After the cap of bottle is opened and air comes in, a white membrane may be observed on the surface of EM1. This is yeast and does no cause a problem.

CONVERSION TABLE (Area)
1 are (1a) = 100m2
1 hectare (1 ha) = 100are (100a) = 2.471 acres
1 km2 = 100 hectares (100 ha)
1 acre = 0.4047 hectare

APPENDIX:1 EXAMPLES OF BOKASHI FOR YOUR INFORMATION

1. Manure Bokashi

(1) Materials
1. Dung of any animals 2 parts
2. Rice bran 1 part
3. Rice husk 1 part
4. EM1 and Molasses

(2) Preparation

Mix dung, rice bran and husk well
Dissolve EM1 and molasses in the water(1:1:100)
Spray the EM1 diluted solution on the dry ingredients with a watering can.
The moisture content should be 30-40%.
Heap on a floor in flat shape to a height of about 15-20cm. Cover it with gunny bag.
During fermentation the temperature should be kept around 35-45 °C. Thus please check temperature regularly using a normal thermometer. If the temperature rises beyond 50°C, mix the Bokashi well to aerate it.
Bokashi is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell and white mold is observed. If it has a sour and rotten smell, it is failure.

2. Rice and rice straw Bokashi

This bokashi can be prepared economically in the field.

(1) Materials (for 5a)
1. Rice straw 200 kg (preferably chopped)
2. Weed straw 50 kg
3. Rice bran 5 kg
4. Chicken dung 10 kg
5. EM1 and Molasses

(2) Preparation

Dissolve EM 1 and molasses in the water (1:1:100).
Soak a part of rice straw into the diluted EM1 solution. Then drain the straw and place on the ground. Tread them well to remove air, and heap to a height of 30cm.
Soak a part of weeds in diluted EM1 solution and put them on the rice straw. Tread them to remove air, and heap to a height of 10 cm.
Mix rice bran and chicken dung, and sprinkle it on surface of weeds to a 1cm thickness. Mix with fork.
Repeat 1 to 4. till the height of heap becomes 1-1.5m.
Cover the top by gunny bag, and then by vinyl sheet to obtain anaerobic conditions and prevent infiltration of rainwater.
When temperature goes down after fermentation, turn it and leave 3-7days.

Thereafter, it is ready for use. (white mold will be observed.)

3. 24 HOURS COMPOST

(1) Materials
1. Any kinds of straw 10 parts (Dried and chopped)
2. Bokashi 1 part
3. Rice bran 1 part
4. EM1 and Molasses

(2) Preparation

Dissolve EM1 and molasses in the water (1:1:100).
Soak rice straw in the above EM1 diluted solution.
Mix wet straws with bokashi and rice bran.
Put it on a floor to a height of 15-20cm height, and cover it with gunny bag.
Turn it over after 18 hours and continue to ferment for a further 6 hours. It is ready for application in the farm. If it is hot, spread and uncover it.

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APPENDIX:2 SOIL FOR RAISING SEEDLINGS.

(1) Material
1. Soil 20 parts
2. Bokashi 1 part
3. Rice husk 1 part
4. EM1 and Molasses

(2) Preparation

Mix soil, bokashi, and rice husk charcoal together.
Dissolve EM1 and molasses in water (1:1:100), and sprinkle the solution on the above mixture while mixing it. The moisture content should be about 30%.
Cover it with gunny bag and vinyl sheet.
Turn it several times to prevent the temperature rising above 50 °C.
Leave the soil for 3 weeks-covered with a vinyl sheet to avoid drying out.
It is ready for use when it gives a sweet fermented smell and white mold is observed. If it has a sour and rotten smell, it is failure.

(3) Application.

Use this soil when you raise seedlings of vegetable and fruit.

APPENDIX 3: PREPARATION OF EM1 SECONDARY STOCK SOLUTION.

If you can not get sufficient EM1 stock solution for your land, you can multiply available EM1 stock solutions. This secondary EM1 stock solution can be used instead of the original EM1 stock solution. However, this multiplied EM1 (EM1 secondary stock solution) is inferior to original EM1 (EM1 stock solution) in quality.

Storage period of EM1 secondary stock solution is obviously shorter than the original EM1 stock solution.

Material
1. Water 100 litres (pure water without chlorine.)
2. EM1 5 litre
3. Molasses 5 litres (or 5 kg of brown sugar)

(2) Preparation

Mix EM1 and Molasses well in the water.
Pour the mixture into a clean plastic container or drum, which can be shut tightly (A glass container is not applicable.) and store at the ambient temperature.
After 3-10 days, when pH is below 3.5, it is ready for use.

*It is desirable to use this secondary solution as soon as possible. It can be stored for 1 week under air tight and shady condition

*DO not multiply the third EM1 stock solution from EM1 secondary stock solution, because it is very difficult to prevent contamination. The balance of microorganisms is changed, and the efficacy is lost.

APPENDIX 4: SOIL CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF MICROBIAL ACTIVITY

(1) Disease-inducing soil

The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is high (more than 15 – 20%) in this soil.
When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied, this soil produces a foul odor. Maggots develop in the soil together with many harmful insects. Pest and disease infestation is high with significant damage to the crops.
Therefore, applying raw organic matter is harmful for crops in this soil. Application of raw organic matter hardens the soil. The soil physical conditions deteriorate. In case of rice fields, gas is generated. Application of high quantities of chemical fertilizer and/or agricultural chemicals leads to the development of this type of soil.

(2) Disease-suppressive soil

Microorganisms which produce antibiotic substances exist in this soil. Thus, soil borne diseases do not develop easily. As Microorganisms such as Penicilium, Tricoderma, Streptamyces are active, the percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low (less than 5%) in this soil.
When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied to such soil, foul odors do not develop. The soil has the fresh sweet smell of mountain soil after decomposition. Soil aggregation and permeability are improved. On cultivation, pest and disease infestation is very low, but the yield is not so good. If this soil links up with a “Synthetic soil”, productivity is enhanced.

(3) Zymogenic soil

This soil primarily contains zymogenic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria and yeasts. When raw organic matter containing high nitrogen is applied, this soil develops an aromatic fermented smell. The populations of fermentable fungi such as Aspergillus and Rhizopus are increased. The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low (less than 5%) in this soil.
The water-stable soil aggregate is high, and the soil becomes soft. Thus the solubility of inorganic nutrients enhances. The presence of amino acid, sugars, vitamins and other bioactive substances is increased in this soil, thereby promoting growth of crops.

(4) Synthetic soil

This soil contains microorganisms such as photosynthetic, nitrogen fixing bacteria.
Under stable soil moisture conditions, the soil quality is enhanced by addition of small volume of organic matter. The percentage of Fusarium in all fungi is low in this soil. This soil often links up with a “disease-suppressive soil”

Zymogenic-synthetic soil

When “Zymogenic-soil” and “Synthetic soil” are linked, it becomes an ideal soil for crop production. Such as soil is termed “Zymogenic-synthetic soil”.

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